Thermodynamics (ENS 202)

2022 Fall
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences
Engineering Sciences(ENS)
6.00 / 6.00 ECTS (for students admitted in the 2013-14 Academic Year or following years)
Mehmet Yıldız,
Formal lecture,Recitation
Interactive,Learner centered,Communicative,Discussion based learning,Task based learning
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Fundamental concepts and mathematical tools ; thermal equilibrium; Zeroth Law and definition of temperature; equations of state; First and Second Laws; thermodynamic potentials (enthalpy, Helmholtz, Gibbs) and the Maxwell relations; first order phase transitions; critical phenomena; Third Law, negative temperatures; introduction to statistical mechanics. Also part of the "core course" pools for the BIO, MAT, ME,TE degree programs.


To equip the students with a basic understanding of equilibrium, both from a macroscopic and a microscopic viewpoint, so that they can (i) perform the energy balance for a system and analyze the energy transfer processes in the system; (ii) interrelate various thermodynamic functions so that hard-to-measure properties may be determined through the measurable ones; (iii) develop a basic understanding of phase behavior.


State and explain general concepts used in thermodynamics including the system and its surroundings, mechanisms of energy transfer; state versus path function.
Interpret the basic assumptions of the ideal gas law and illustrate how the van der Waals equation of state rectifies these assumptions to lead to a gas <-> liquid phase transition behavior and the critical point.
Using published data, such as heat capacity, calculate the internal energy, enthalpy changes of a system with respect to a reference state.
Apply the first law of thermodynamics by performing a detailed balance of energy transfer for a variety of real systems involving thermal energy, calculate efficiency in energy conversion
Define second law of thermodynamics and using published data calculate the entropy change of a system and surroundings
Write the entropy rate balance for control values and calculate the entropy production
Define and calculate the Gibbs and Helmholtz free energy changes in various systems using Maxwell's relations, write the differential forms of state functions
Define chemical potential and relate it to change in Gibbs energy and identify reversibility and spontaneity in changes towards equilibrium.
Describe the physical, structural, and thermodynamic properties of equilibrium phases and phase transformations in single and two-component systems
Determine the changes in thermodynamic properties in ideal, non-ideal, dilute, and in regular solutions
Draw P-V and T-V diagram of pure substances, determine the phase of a substance at different conditions
Calculate the activities and activity coefficients for real solutions

Apply the Lever Rule to determine the phase composition in a multi-phase field;
Define the ideal thermodynamic cycles for gas and gas-vapor systems and calculate the thermal efficiency


  Percentage (%)
Final 30
Midterm 40
Exam 10
Assignment 5
Participation 5
Homework 10



-- Thermodynamics, Statistical Thermodynamics & Kinetics, 3/E
Thomas Engel, Philip Reid
-- Thermodynamics by Çengel & Boles


-- Thermodynamics of Materials, Vol. I by D.V. Ragone (ISBN 0-471-30885-4)
-- Physical Chemistry by Atkins & de Paula