Turkish Politics (POLS 550)

2021 Fall
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
Political Science(POLS)
3
10.00
Ersin Mahmut Kalaycıoğlu kalaycie@sabanciuniv.edu,
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English
Doctoral, Master
--
Formal lecture
Interactive
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CONTENT

This course aims to provide a systematic historical review of classic and contemporary literature on the Turkish political institutions and processes from the Ottoman period to the present. Special attention will be paid to public policy making processes, forms of political participation, organisation and structure of diffrent levels of government institutions and mass movements.

OBJECTIVE

The primary objective of the course is to enable the students to understand and analyze the complexities and developments of political life, institutions and processes, as well as the socio-economic factors that influence the political system in Turkey. An equally significant aim of the course is to provide the students with the theoretical background and analytical tools to render their own political analyses of the Turkish political system, in the context of the field of comparative politics and of the political science discipline.

LEARNING OUTCOME

At the end of the module students will be able to:
1) Comprehend the approaches, theories, and concepts used to explain developments in Turkish politics.
2) Identify main pitfalls, fallacies and challenges in conducting research in Turkish politics.
3) Analyze the relevant political science literature by reference to empirical evidence on Turkish politics.
4) Develop research questions and pertinent designs to analyze phenomena, events, and issues in Turkish politics.
5) Identify the major concepts, approaches, and research techniques in Turkish politics.
6) Compare the political science literature on Turkish Politics with other similar and dissimilar cases in Comparative Politics.
7) Engage in interpretation and reasoned criticism of research practices and arguments in Turkish politics.
8) Apply abstract logical and research tools, ideas and concepts to actual events and outcomes
9) Formulating research questions, corresponding hypothesis, and empirical testing of hypothesis using relevant techniques, such as mathematical statistics.

ASSESSMENT METHODS and CRITERIA

  Percentage (%)
Final 30
Midterm 50
Participation 20

RECOMENDED or REQUIRED READINGS

Readings

1. Approaches to Turkish Politics (weeks 1-2)

Niyazi Berkes, The Development of Secularism in Turkey, (Montreal: McGill Univ. Press, 1964): 3 - 250 (Introduction - Chap. 8).

Şerif Mardin (1975), "Center-Periphery Relations: A Key to Turkish Politics?" in Engin D. Akarlı and Gabriel Ben-Dor (eds.), Political Participation in Turkey: Historical Background and Present Problems, (Istanbul: Boğaziçi University Press): 7-32.

Ergun Özbudun, "Development of Democratic Government in Turkey", in Ergun Özbudun (ed.), Perspectives on Democracy in Turkey, (Ankara: Turkish Political Science Association Publication, 1988): 1-58.

Çağlar Keyder, "The Agrarian Background and the Origins of the Turkish Bourgeoisie", in Ayşe Öncü, Çağlar Keyder, Saad Eddin Ibrahim (eds.), Developmentalism and Beyond: Society and Politics in Egypt and Turkey, (Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 1994): 44-72.

Suggested Reading:

Çağlar Keyder, Türkiye'de Devlet ve Sınıflar, (çev. Sabri Tekay), (2. Baskı) (İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları, 1990): 9-195.

2. Political Culture: The People and Their Polity (week 3)

İlter Turan, "The Evolution of Political Culture in Turkey," in Ahmet Evin, Modern Turkey: Continuity and Change, (Berlin: Leske Verlag and Budrich, 1984): 84-112.

Frank Tachau, TURKEY: The Politics of Authority, Democracy, and Development, (New York, Praeger, 1984), 13-34.

Frederick W. Frey, "Patterns of Elite Politics in Turkey," in G. Lenczowski (ed.) Political Elites in the Middle East, (Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1975): 41 - 82.

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, "Political Culture and Regime Stability: The Case of Turkey," Boğaziçi University, Journal of Economic and Administraitve Studies, vol. 2, no. 2, (Summer 1988): 149-79.

Yılmaz Esmer, Devrim, Evrim, Statüko: Türkiye'de Sosyal, Siyasal ve Ekonomik Değerler, (İstanbul: TESEV, 1999), passim.

Selected Reading:

Umut Özkırımlı and Spyros A. Sofos, Tormented by History: Nationalism in Greece and Turkey, (London: Hurst & Co.: 2008): passim.

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, "Türkiye'de Demokrasi'nin Pekişmesi: Bir Siyasal Kültür Sorunu", Prof. Dr. Ergun Özbudun'a Armağan: Essays in Honor of Ergun Özbudun, Cilt 1 (Siyaset Bilimi), (Ankara: Yetkin Basımevi, 2008): 247 - 277.

3. Political Regime (week 4)

Ergun Özbudun, Contemporary Turkish Politics: Challenges to Democratic Consolidation, (Boulder, London: Lynne Reinner, 2000): 49-71.

Mümtaz Soysal, Dinamik Anayasa Anlayışı: Anayasa Diyalektiği Üzerine bir Deneme, (Ankara: Sevinç Matbaası, 1969): 1-106.

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, Turkish Dynamics: Bridge Across Troubled Lands (New York: Palgrave - Macmillan, 2005): 15 - 188.

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, "From Parliamentary Uni-partyism to Fragmented Multi-partyism:
The Odyssey of Political Regimes in the Turkish Republic," (Paper prepared for Publication in the FUNDAMENTA, Leiden, Netherlands).

Suggested Readings:

Ergun Özbudun, 1921 Anayasası, (Ankara: Atatürk Kültür, Dil ve Tarih Yüksek Kurumu, Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi, 1992): 1-84.

4. Political Institutions: State and Politics (An Overview) (week 5)

Metin Heper, State Tradition in Turkey, (Walkington, UK: The Eothen Press, 1985): passim.

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, "Constitutional Viability and Political Institutions in Turkish Democracy" in Abdo I. Baaklini and Helen Desfosses, (eds.) Designs for Democratic Stability: Studies in Viable Constitutionalism, (Armonk, New York, London, England: M. E. Sharpe, 1997): 179-210.

Mid-term I: Week 6 (November 5, 2008)


4. 1. The Legislative System (weeks 7)

Marvin Weinbaum, "Classification and Change in Legislative Systems: With Particular Application to Iran, Turkey, and Afghanistan," in . R. Boynton, and Chong L. Kim (eds.) Legislative Systems in Developing Countries, (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1975): 31-68.

Chong L. Kim et. al., The Legislative Connection: The Politics of Representation in Kenya, Korea, and Turkey, (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1984): 87-115.

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, "Cyclical Breakdown, Redesign, and Nascent Institutionalization: the Turkish Grand National Assembly," in Ulrike Liebert, and Maurizio Cotta (eds.) Parliament and Democratic Consolidation in Southern Europe, (London, New York: Francis Pinter, 1990): 184-222.

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, "The Turkish Grand National Assembly: A Brief Inquiry into the Politics of Representation in Turkey" in Çiğdem Balım et. al. (eds.) Turkey: Political, Social and Economic Challenges in the 1990s. (Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill, 1995): 42-60.

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, "Türkiye'de Siyasal Sistemin Evrimi ve Yasama Sistemi" Bilanço 1923-1998: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti'nin 75 yılına Toplu Bakış" Uluslararası Kongresi, Cilt I, 1999: 95-110.

Ilter Turan, "Volatility in Politics, Stability in Parliament: An Impossible Dream? The Turkish Grand National Assembly during the Last Two Decades", The Journal of Legislative Studies, vol. 9, no. 2, (Summer 2003):151 -176.

Suggested Reading:

Ahmet Naki Yücekök, Türkiye'de Parlamento'nun Evrimi, (Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Yayını, 1983): 157-188.

4. 2. Executive and the Bureaucracy (week 7 - 8)

Metin Heper, "Bureaucrats, Politicians and Officiers in Turkey," in Ahmet Evin (ed.), Modern Turkey: 64 - 83.

Ergun Özbudun, Contemporary Turkish Politics: Challenges to Democratic Consolidation, (Boulder, London: Lynne Reinner, 2000): 105 - 23.

Metin Heper, "State, Democracy and Bureaucracy in Turkey, in Metin Heper (ed.), The State and Public Bureaucracies: A Comparative Perspective, (New York: Greenwood Press, 1987): 131 - 145.

William Hale, Turkish Politics and the Military, (London: Routledge, 1994), passim.

Kemal H. Karpat, "Military Interventions: Army-Civilian Relations in Turkey Before and After 1980," in M. Heper and A. Evin (eds.) State, Democracy and the Military in Turkey in the 1980s, (Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1988): 137 - 158.

William Hale, "Transition to Civilian Governments in Turkey: The Military Perspective" in M. Heper and A. Evin (eds.) State, Democracy and the Military in Turkey in the 1980s, (Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1988): 159 - 75.

George Harris, "The Role of the Military in Turkey in the 1980s: Guardians or Decision-Makers?" in M. Heper and A. Evin (eds.) State, Democracy and the Military in Turkey in the 1980s, (Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1988): 177 - 200.

Ergun Özbudun, Contemporary Turkish Politics: Challenges to Democratic Consolidation, (Boulder, London: Lynne Reinner, 2000): 105-123.

Suggested Reading:

Ümit Cizre-Sakallıoğlu, AP-Ordu İlişkileri: Bir İkilemin Anatomisi, (İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları, 1993), passim.

4.3. Elections and Voting Behavior (weeks 8-9)

Üstün Ergüder, (1980-81) "Changing Patterns of Electoral Politics in Turkey" Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Dergisi (Sosyal Bilimler), vol. 8-9: 45-69.

Üstün Ergüder and Richard Hofferbert, "The 1983 General Elections in Turkey" in Metin Heper and Ahmet Evin (eds.) State, Democracy and the Military: Turkey in the 1980s (Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1988): 81-102.

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, "Elections and Party Preferences in Turkey: Changes and Continuities in the 1990s" Comparative Political Studies, 27, (October 1994): 402 - 424.

Yılmaz Esmer, "Parties and the Electorate: A Comparative Analysis of Voter Profiles of Turkish Political Parties," in Çiğdem Balim et. al. (eds.) Turkey: Political, Social and Economic Challenges in the 1990s. (Leiden, New York, Köln: E. J. Brill, 1995): Chap. 5

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, "The Shaping of Party Preferences in Turkey: Coping with the Post-Cold War Era" New Perspectives on Turkey, (Spring 1999), 20: 47-76.

Yılmaz Esmer, "At the Ballot Box: Determinants of Voting Behavior" in Sabri Sayarı and Yılmaz Esmer (eds.) Politics, Parties and Elections, (Boulder, and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002): 91 - 114.

Ali Çarkoglu and Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, Turkish Democracy Today: Elections, Protest and Stability in an Islamic Society, (London: I. B. Tauris, 2007): pp. 22 - 42 and pp. 113 - 221.

Ali Çarkoğlu, "Ideology or Economic Pragmatism?: Profiling Turkish Voters in 2007," Turkish Studies, vol. 9, no. 2, (June 2008): pp. 317 -344.

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, "Attitudinal Orientation to Party Organizations in Turkey in the 2000s," Turkish Studies, vol. 9, no. 2, (June 2008): pp. 297 - 316.


Suggested Reading:

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, "Elections and Governance" in Sabri Sayarı ve Yılmaz Esmer (eds.) Politics, Parties, and Elections in Turkey, (Boulder, London: Lynne Reinner, 2002): 55-71.

William Hale, "The Electoral System and the 2007 Elections: Effects and Debates," Turkish Studies, vol. 9, no. 2, (June 2008): pp. 233 - 246.

4.4. Political Parties and the Party System in Turkey (weeks 9-10)

Ersin Onulduran, Political Development and Political Parties in Turkey, (Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi, Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi, 1974): passim.

Metin Heper and Jacob M. Landau (eds.) Political Parties and Democracy in Turkey. (London: I. B. Tauris, 1990): passim.

Ergun Özbudun, Contemporary Turkish Politics: Challenges to Democratic Consolidation, (Boulder, London: Lynne Reinner, 2000): 73-103.

William Hale, "Democracy and the Party System in Turkey," in in Brian W. Beeley (ed.) Turkish Transformation: New Century - New Challenges, (Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, England: The Eothen Press, 2002): 165 - 197.

Barry Rubin and Metin Heper (eds.), Political Parties in Turkey, (London, Portland OR: Frank Cass, 2002): passim.

Sabri Sayarı, "The Changing Party System," in Sabri Sayarı and Yılmaz Esmer (eds.) Politics, Parties and Elections, (Boulder, and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002): 9 - 32.

Ümit Cizre (ed.) Secular and Islamic Politics in Turkey: The Making of the Justice and Development Party, (London and New York: Routledge, 2008): passim.

Suggested Readings:

Tarık Z. Tunaya, Türkiye'de Siyasal Partiler I, (İstanbul: Hürriyet Yayınları, 1984): passim.

Tarık Z. Tunaya, Op. cit. II, (İstanbul: Hürriyet Yayınları, 1986): passim.

Tarık Z. Tunaya, Op. cit. III, (İstanbul: Hürriyet Yayınları, 1989): passim.


Mid-term II: Week 9 (November 26, 2008)


5. Interest Groups and Civil Society (week 11)

Robert Bianchi, Interest Groups and Political Developmet in Turkey, (Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton Univ. Press, 1984), chaps. 5-7.

M. Heper, "Interest Group Politics in post-1980 Turkey: Lingering Monism," in Metin Heper (ed.) Strong State and Economic Interest Groups, (Berlin, New York, Walter de Gruyter, 1991): 163-76.

Ergun Özbudun, Contemporary Turkish Politics: Challenges to Democratic Consolidation: 125 - 147.

Nilüfer Göle, "Authoritarian Secularism and Islamist Politics: The Case of Turkey," in Augustus Richard Norton (ed.), Civil Society in the Middle East, (Leiden, New York and Köln: E. J. Brill, 1996): 17-43.

Binnaz Toprak, "Civil Society in Turkey," in Augustus Richard Norton (ed.), Civil Society in the Middle East, (Leiden, New York, and Köln: E. J. Brill, 1996): 87-118.

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, "Civil Society in Turkey: Continuity or Change?", in Brian W. Beeley (ed.) Turkish Transformation: New Century - New Challenges, (Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, England: The Eothen Press, 2002): 59-78.

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu , "State and Civil Society in Turkey: Democracy, Development and Protest" in Amyn B. Sajoo (ed.), Civil Society in the Muslim World: Contemporary Perspectives, (London, New York: I. B. Tauris, 2002): 247-272.

6. Political Economy (weeks 12 - 13)

William Hale, The Political and Economic Development of Modern Turkey, (London: Croom Helm, 1981): 33-261.

Rüştü Saracoğlu, "Liberalization of the Economy" in Metin Heper (ed.) Politics in the Third Turkish Republic, (Boulder, San Francisco, Oxford: Westview Press, 1994): 63-75.

Selim İlkin, "Privatization of the State Economic Enterprises" in Metin Heper (ed.) Politics in the Third Turkish Republic, (Boulder, San Francisco, Oxford: Westview Press, 1994): 77-86

Mina Toksöz, "The Economy: Achievements and Prospects", in Brian W. Beeley (ed.) Turkish Transformation: New Century - New Challenges, (Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, England: The Eothen Press, 2002): 141-164.

Ziya Öniş, "Domestic Politics versus Global Dynamics: Towards a Political Economy of the 2000 and 2001 Financial Crises in Turkey," Turkish Studies, vol. 4, no. 2, (Summer 2003): 1- 30.

E. Fuat Keyman and Ziya Öniş, Turkish Politics in a Changing World: Global Dynamics and Domestic Transformations, (Istanbul, Turkey: Istanbul Bilgi University Press, 2007): passim.


7. Social Mobilization and Political Participation (weeks 13-14)

Ergun Özbudun, Social Change and Political Participation in Turkey, (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1976): 60-96, and 118-151.

Sabri Sayarı, "Some Notes on the Beginnings of Mass Political Participation in Turkey," in Engin D. Akarlı with Gabriel Ben-Dor (eds.) Political Participation in Turkey: Historical Background and Present Problems, (Bebek, Istanbul: Boğaziçi University Pub., 1975): 121-133

Ayşe Güneş-Ayata (1994), "Roots and Trends of Clientelism in Turkey" in Luis Roniger and Ayşe Güneş-Ayata (eds.), Democracy, Clientelism and Civil Society, (Boulder, London: Lynne Rienner): 49-63.

Ersin Kalaycıoğlu, "Türkiye'de Siyasal Katılma ve Değişim," Tarih Vakfı, 75 Yılda Tebaa'dan Yurttaş'a Doğru, (İstanbul, Tarih Vakfı Yayınları, 1998) içinde 233-40.

Ali Çarkoglu and Ersin Kalaycioğlu, Turkish Democracy Today: Elections, Protest and Stability in an Islamic Society, (London: I. B. Tauris, 2007): pp. 1- 21, and pp. 57 - 112.