Introduction to Energy Systems (ENS 207)

2021 Fall
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences
Engineering Sciences(ENS)
Tuğçe Yüksel,
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Formal lecture,Interactive lecture,Recitation
Interactive,Communicative,Discussion based learning,Task based learning
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The scope of this course includes fundamentals of energy systems, which are the subject of political and scientific interest in recent years. Students will learn the fundamental principles that are used in the analysis of energy systems. Specifically selected topics from thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer will be subjects of this course. Particular topics include but not limited or exclusive to: conservation of mass, momentum and energy, control volumes and control surfaces, the second law of thermodynamıcs, entropy, heat engines, internal and external flows, conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer.


The main objective of this course is to teach students to use basic laws, rules and principles used in the analysis of energy conversion systems, such as heat engines, wind turbines, solar collectors and nuclear reactors, and to obtain the energy conversion efficiency for various cycles. Students must be able to derive simple mathematical formulas from the conservation laws and use in the analysis of energy conversion systems, obtain pumping power and flow rates in flow systems, determine temperatures and heat transfer rates in thermal systems with conduction and convection processes. From a general point of view, the course aims to teach students to relate fundamental laws and mathematical expressions that correspond to these laws in the analysis of energy conversion systems and components.


  • Understand and demonstrate key concepts of thermodynamic equilibrium, properties, states, processes and cycles, and use these concepts to derive thermodynamic relationships in p-v-T space for gases;
  • Understand and demonstrate key concepts of system, control volume and the control surface, and use these concepts to calculate mass flow rates, energy transfer rates;
  • Understand and demonstrate irreversible and reversible processes and macroscopic definition of entropy and calculate work output and efficiency of thermodynamic processes, cycles and heat engines;
  • Understand and demonstrate the first law principles and enthalpy to calculate temperatures, energy transfer rates, and efficiencies;
  • Learn to simplify realistic thermophysical systems by applying appropriate assumptions
  • Apply the first law of thermodynamics to the solution of open and closed analysis of processes and cycles;
  • Apply the second law of thermodynamics to obtain efficiency limits of heat engines.
  • Apply laws of thermodynamics and use properties of phase changing liquids to obtain power output and thermal efficiency of components in steam power plants and refrigeration systems
  • Apply laws of thermodynamics and use properties of gasses to obtain power output and thermal efficiency of components of gas power systems
  • Identify reasonable assumptions and provide simple solutions to complex engineering problems.
  • Work with others on solution strategies but solve the actual problem on their own thorough homework assignments.
  • Convert and use energy and power units for simple calculations to make estimates related to energy security, power generation and everyday use of energy.
  • Understand and demonstrate key concepts of heat transfer and heat transfer modes.
  • Identify the components of steam power generation systems, gas power systems, refrigeration and heat pump systems and be able to describe their working principles.


1. Understand the world, their country, their society, as well as themselves and have awareness of ethical problems, social rights, values and responsibility to the self and to others. 2

2. Understand different disciplines from natural and social sciences to mathematics and art, and develop interdisciplinary approaches in thinking and practice. 5

3. Think critically, follow innovations and developments in science and technology, demonstrate personal and organizational entrepreneurship and engage in life-long learning in various subjects; have the ability to continue to educate him/herself. 3

4. Communicate effectively in Turkish and English by oral, written, graphical and technological means. 3

5. Take individual and team responsibility, function effectively and respectively as an individual and a member or a leader of a team; and have the skills to work effectively in multi-disciplinary teams. 3

1. Possess sufficient knowledge of mathematics, science and program-specific engineering topics; use theoretical and applied knowledge of these areas in complex engineering problems. 5

2. Identify, define, formulate and solve complex engineering problems; choose and apply suitable analysis and modeling methods for this purpose. 5

3. Develop, choose and use modern techniques and tools that are needed for analysis and solution of complex problems faced in engineering applications; possess knowledge of standards used in engineering applications; use information technologies effectively. 2

4. Have the ability to design a complex system, process, instrument or a product under realistic constraints and conditions, with the goal of fulfilling specified needs; apply modern design techniques for this purpose. 1

5. Design and conduct experiments, collect data, analyze and interpret the results to investigate complex engineering problems or program-specific research areas. 1

6. Possess knowledge of business practices such as project management, risk management and change management; awareness on innovation; knowledge of sustainable development. 1

7. Possess knowledge of impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, health and societal context; knowledge of contemporary issues; awareness on legal outcomes of engineering solutions; knowledge of behavior according to ethical principles, understanding of professional and ethical responsibility. 3

8. Have the ability to write effective reports and comprehend written reports, prepare design and production reports, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear and intelligible instructions. 1

1. Use mathematics (including derivative and integral calculations, probability and statistics, differential equations, linear algebra, complex variables and discrete mathematics), basic sciences, computer and programming, and electronics engineering knowledge to (a) Design and analyze complex electronic circuits, instruments, software and electronics systems with hardware/software or (b) Design and analyze communication networks and systems, signal processing algorithms or software

1. Applying fundamental and advanced knowledge of natural sciences as well as engineering principles to develop and design new materials and establish the relation between internal structure and physical properties using experimental, computational and theoretical tools. 1

2. Merging the existing knowledge on physical properties, design limits and fabrication methods in materials selection for a particular application or to resolve material performance related problems. 1

3. Predicting and understanding the behavior of a material under use in a specific environment knowing the internal structure or vice versa. 1

1. Familiarity with concepts in statistics and optimization, knowledge in basic differential and integral calculus, linear algebra, differential equations, complex variables, multi-variable calculus, as well as physics and computer science, and ability to use this knowledge in modeling, design and analysis of complex dynamical systems containing hardware and software components. 2

2. Ability to work in design, implementation and integration of engineering applications, such as electronic, mechanical, electromechanical, control and computer systems that contain software and hardware components, including sensors, actuators and controllers. 1

1. Formulate and analyze problems in complex manufacturing and service systems by comprehending and applying the basic tools of industrial engineering such as modeling and optimization, stochastics, statistics. 1

2. Design and develop appropriate analytical solution strategies for problems in integrated production and service systems involving human capital, materials, information, equipment, and energy. 1

3. Implement solution strategies on a computer platform for decision-support purposes by employing effective computational and experimental tools. 1


  Percentage (%)
Final 30
Midterm 50
Quiz 10
Assignment 10



Principles of Engineering Thermodynamics, M.J. Moran, H.N. Shapiro, D.D. Boetner, M.B. Bailey, 8th Edition, Wiley, 2014


Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences, Y.A. Cengel, R.H. Turner, J.
Cimbala, McGraw-Hill.

Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer , T.L. Bergman, A.S. Levine,
F.P. Incropera, D.P. DeWitt, Wiley, 2011.

Sustainable Energy-without the hot air , David JC MacKay, 2009.
(Free e-book available on the web)