Continuous and discrete, periodic and aperiodic signals, impulse, unit step signals. Spectrum representation of a signal. Fourier series representation of periodic signals. System concept. Continuous and Discrete Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Systems. Linear Time Invariant (LTI) Systems. Impulse response and Frequency response of LTI systems. Fourier transform of aperiodic and periodic signals. Filtering in time and frequency domain. Sampling of continuous signals. Aliasing. Bandlimited reconstruction, interpolation. Basic Amplitude Modulation This course is also included in the core course pool of the EL and TE undergraduate programmes.

### Signals (ENS 211)

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Programs\Type | Required | Core Elective | Area Elective |

BA- Political Science | |||

BA-Cultural Studies | |||

BA-Cultural Studies | |||

BA-Economics | |||

BA-Economics | |||

BA-International Studies | |||

BA-International Studies | |||

BA-Management | |||

BA-Management | |||

BA-Political Sci.&Inter.Relat. | |||

BA-Social & Political Sciences | |||

BA-Visual Arts&Visual Com.Des. | |||

BA-Visual Arts&Visual Com.Des. | |||

BS-Biological Sci.&Bioeng. | |||

BS-Computer Science & Eng. | * | ||

BS-Computer Science & Eng. | * | ||

BS-Electronics Engineering | * | ||

BS-Electronics Engineering | * | ||

BS-Industrial Engineering | * | ||

BS-Manufacturing Systems Eng. | * | ||

BS-Materials Sci. & Nano Eng. | * | ||

BS-Materials Science & Eng. | * | ||

BS-Mechatronics | * | ||

BS-Mechatronics | * | ||

BS-Microelectronics | * | ||

BS-Molecular Bio.Gen.&Bioeng | |||

BS-Telecommunications | * |

### CONTENT

### OBJECTIVE

Major objectives of this course are:

1) To utilize mathematics as a tool for describing and understanding signals and systems.

2) To provide a broad introduction to signals.

3) To comprehend linear time invariant (LTI) system fundamentals both in time and frequency domains.

### LEARNING OUTCOME

Describe a periodic signal in time domain by defining its properties such as the fundamental period and fundamental frequency.

Define a periodic signal as a sum of sinusoids or complex exponentials, i.e., create the Fourier series representation of a periodic signal and reconstruct the signal back from such representation through Fourier analysis and synthesis equations.

Construct the spectrum representation of a periodic signal.

Identify Finite Impulse Response (FIR) systems, Linear Time Invariant (LTI) Systems, and their properties.

Define the impulse response of an LTI system both in continuous-time and discrete-time, and system properties such as stability and causality.

Define the frequency response of an LTI system and its properties.

Construct forward and inverse Fourier Transforms of both periodic and aperiodic continuous-time signals.

Describe ideal frequency selective filters (low-pass, high-pass, band-pass) in the frequency domain.

Perform frequency filtering over the spectrum of a signal.

Describe the Sampling Theorem and conversion between continuous time and discrete-time domains.

Describe basic principles of an Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation System.

### PROGRAMME OUTCOMES

**1.** Understand the world, their country, their society, as well as themselves and have awareness of ethical problems, social rights, values and responsibility to the self and to others. 1

**2.** Understand different disciplines from natural and social sciences to mathematics and art, and develop interdisciplinary approaches in thinking and practice. 4

**3.** Think critically, follow innovations and developments in science and technology, demonstrate personal and organizational entrepreneurship and engage in life-long learning in various subjects. 3

**4.** Communicate effectively in Turkish and English by oral, written, graphical and technological means. 2

**5.** Take individual and team responsibility, function effectively and respectively as an individual and a member or a leader of a team; and have the skills to work effectively in multi-disciplinary teams. 2

**1.** Possess sufficient knowledge of mathematics, science and program-specific engineering topics; use theoretical and applied knowledge of these areas in complex engineering problems. 5

**2.** Identify, define, formulate and solve complex engineering problems; choose and apply suitable analysis and modeling methods for this purpose. 5

**3.** Develop, choose and use modern techniques and tools that are needed for analysis and solution of complex problems faced in engineering applications; possess knowledge of standards used in engineering applications; use information technologies effectively. 3

**4.** Ability to design a complex system, process, instrument or a product under realistic constraints and conditions, with the goal of fulfilling specified needs; apply modern design techniques for this purpose. 3

**5.** Design and conduct experiments, collect data, analyze and interpret the results to investigate complex engineering problems or program-specific research areas. 2

**6.** Knowledge of business practices such as project management, risk management and change management; awareness on innovation; knowledge of sustainable development. 1

**7.** Knowledge of impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, health and societal context; knowledge of contemporary issues; awareness on legal outcomes of engineering solutions; understanding of professional and ethical responsibility. 2

**1.** Use mathematics (including derivative and integral calculations, probability and statistics, differential equations, linear algebra, complex variables and discrete mathematics), basic sciences, computer and programming, and electronics engineering knowledge to
(a) Design and analyze complex electronic circuits, instruments, software and electronics systems with hardware/software.
or
(b) Design and analyze communication networks and systems, signal processing algorithms or software

**1.** Familiarity with concepts in statistics and optimization, knowledge in basic differential and integral calculus, linear algebra, differential equations, complex variables, multi-variable calculus, as well as physics and computer science, and ability to use this knowledge in modeling, design and analysis of complex dynamical systems containing hardware and software components. 4

**2.** Ability to work in design, implementation and integration of engineering applications, such as electronic, mechanical, electromechanical, control and computer systems that contain software and hardware components, including sensors, actuators and controllers. 3

**1.** Design, implement, test, and evaluate a computer system, component, or algorithm to meet desired needs and to solve a computational problem. 3

**2.** Demonstrate knowledge of discrete mathematics and data structures. 3

**3.** Demonstrate knowledge of probability and statistics, including applications appropriate to computer science and engineering. 1

**1.** Formulate and analyze problems in complex manufacturing and service systems by comprehending and applying the basic tools of industrial engineering such as modeling and optimization, stochastics, statistics. 1

**2.** Design and develop appropriate analytical solution strategies for problems in integrated production and service systems involving human capital, materials, information, equipment, and energy. 2

**3.** Implement solution strategies on a computer platform for decision-support purposes by employing effective computational and experimental tools. 2

**1.** Applying fundamental and advanced knowledge of natural sciences as well as engineering principles to develop and design new materials and establish the relation between internal structure and physical properties using experimental, computational and theoretical tools. 2

**2.** Merging the existing knowledge on physical properties, design limits and fabrication methods in materials selection for a particular application or to resolve material performance related problems. 1

**3.** Predicting and understanding the behavior of a material under use in a specific environment knowing the internal structure or vice versa. 1

### Update Date:

### ASSESSMENT METHODS and CRITERIA

Percentage (%) | |

Final | 35 |

Midterm | 50 |

Exam | 10 |

Participation | 5 |

### RECOMENDED or REQUIRED READINGS

Textbook |
Signal Processing First,by James H. McClellan, Ronald W. Schafer, Mark A. Yoder |