Fundamental concepts and mathematical tools ; thermal equilibrium; Zeroth Law and definition of temperature; equations of state; First and Second Laws; thermodynamic potentials (enthalpy, Helmholtz, Gibbs) and the Maxwell relations; first order phase transitions; critical phenomena; Third Law, negative temperatures; introduction to statistical mechanics. Also part of the "core course" pools for the BIO, MAT, ME,TE degree programs.

### Thermodynamics (ENS 202)

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Programs\Type | Required | Core Elective | Area Elective |

BA- Political Science | |||

BA-Cultural Studies | |||

BA-Cultural Studies | |||

BA-Economics | |||

BA-Economics | |||

BA-International Studies | |||

BA-International Studies | |||

BA-Management | |||

BA-Management | |||

BA-Social & Political Sciences | |||

BA-Visual Arts&Visual Com.Des. | |||

BA-Visual Arts&Visual Com.Des. | |||

BS-Biological Sci.&Bioeng. | * | ||

BS-Computer Science & Eng. | |||

BS-Computer Science & Eng. | |||

BS-Electronics Engineering | * | ||

BS-Electronics Engineering | * | ||

BS-Industrial Engineering | * | ||

BS-Manufacturing Systems Eng. | * | ||

BS-Materials Sci. & Nano Eng. | * | ||

BS-Materials Science & Eng. | * | ||

BS-Mechatronics | * | ||

BS-Mechatronics | * | ||

BS-Microelectronics | |||

BS-Molecular Bio.Gen.&Bioeng | * | ||

BS-Telecommunications | * | ||

Chemistry | |||

Energy | |||

Physics |

### CONTENT

### OBJECTIVE

To equip the students with a basic understanding of equilibrium, both from a macroscopic and a microscopic viewpoint, so that they can (i) perform the energy balance for a system and analyze the energy transfer processes in the system; (ii) interrelate various thermodynamic functions so that hard-to-measure properties may be determined through the measurable ones; (iii) develop a basic understanding of phase behavior.

### LEARNING OUTCOME

State and explain general concepts used in thermodynamics including the system and its surroundings, mechanisms of energy transfer; state versus path function.

Interpret the basic assumptions of the ideal gas law and illustrate how the van der Waals equation of state rectifies these assumptions to lead to a gas <-> liquid phase transition behavior and the critical point.

Using published data, such as heat capacity, calculate the internal energy, enthalpy changes of a system with respect to a reference state.

Apply the first law of thermodynamics by performing a detailed balance of energy transfer for a variety of real systems involving thermal energy, calculate efficiency in energy conversion

Define second law of thermodynamics and using published data calculate the entropy change of a system and surroundings

Write the entropy rate balance for control values and calculate the entropy production

Define and calculate the Gibbs and Helmholtz free energy changes in various systems using Maxwell's relations, write the differential forms of state functions

Define chemical potential and relate it to change in Gibbs energy and identify reversibility and spontaneity in changes towards equilibrium.

Describe the physical, structural, and thermodynamic properties of equilibrium phases and phase transformations in single and two-component systems

Determine the changes in thermodynamic properties in ideal, non-ideal, dilute, and in regular solutions

Draw P-V and T-V diagram of pure substances, determine the phase of a substance at different conditions

Calculate the activities and activity coefficients for real solutions

Apply the Lever Rule to determine the phase composition in a multi-phase field;

Define the ideal thermodynamic cycles for gas and gas-vapor systems and calculate the thermal efficiency

### PROGRAMME OUTCOMES

**1.** Understand the world, their country, their society, as well as themselves and have awareness of ethical problems, social rights, values and responsibility to the self and to others. 2

**2.** Understand different disciplines from natural and social sciences to mathematics and art, and develop interdisciplinary approaches in thinking and practice. 3

**3.** Think critically, follow innovations and developments in science and technology, demonstrate personal and organizational entrepreneurship and engage in life-long learning in various subjects. 4

**4.** Communicate effectively in Turkish and English by oral, written, graphical and technological means. 4

**5.** Take individual and team responsibility, function effectively and respectively as an individual and a member or a leader of a team; and have the skills to work effectively in multi-disciplinary teams. 4

**1.** Possess sufficient knowledge of mathematics, science and program-specific engineering topics; use theoretical and applied knowledge of these areas in complex engineering problems. 5

**2.** Identify, define, formulate and solve complex engineering problems; choose and apply suitable analysis and modeling methods for this purpose. 5

**3.** Develop, choose and use modern techniques and tools that are needed for analysis and solution of complex problems faced in engineering applications; possess knowledge of standards used in engineering applications; use information technologies effectively. 5

**4.** Ability to design a complex system, process, instrument or a product under realistic constraints and conditions, with the goal of fulfilling specified needs; apply modern design techniques for this purpose. 3

**5.** Design and conduct experiments, collect data, analyze and interpret the results to investigate complex engineering problems or program-specific research areas. 3

**6.** Knowledge of business practices such as project management, risk management and change management; awareness on innovation; knowledge of sustainable development. 2

**7.** Knowledge of impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, health and societal context; knowledge of contemporary issues; awareness on legal outcomes of engineering solutions; understanding of professional and ethical responsibility. 4

**1.** Applying fundamental and advanced knowledge of natural sciences as well as engineering principles to develop and design new materials and establish the relation between internal structure and physical properties using experimental, computational and theoretical tools. 5

**2.** Merging the existing knowledge on physical properties, design limits and fabrication methods in materials selection for a particular application or to resolve material performance related problems. 4

**3.** Predicting and understanding the behavior of a material under use in a specific environment knowing the internal structure or vice versa. 5

**1.** Familiarity with concepts in statistics and optimization, knowledge in basic differential and integral calculus, linear algebra, differential equations, complex variables, multi-variable calculus, as well as physics and computer science, and ability to use this knowledge in modeling, design and analysis of complex dynamical systems containing hardware and software components. 5

**2.** Ability to work in design, implementation and integration of engineering applications, such as electronic, mechanical, electromechanical, control and computer systems that contain software and hardware components, including sensors, actuators and controllers. 3

**1.** Comprehend key concepts in biology and physiology, with emphasis on molecular genetics, biochemistry and molecular and cell biology as well as advanced mathematics and statistics. 4

**2.** Develop conceptual background for interfacing of biology with engineering for a professional awareness of contemporary biological research questions and the experimental and theoretical methods used to address them. 5

**1.** Formulate and analyze problems in complex manufacturing and service systems by comprehending and applying the basic tools of industrial engineering such as modeling and optimization, stochastics, statistics. 3

**2.** Design and develop appropriate analytical solution strategies for problems in integrated production and service systems involving human capital, materials, information, equipment, and energy. 4

**3.** Implement solution strategies on a computer platform for decision-support purposes by employing effective computational and experimental tools. 2

**1.** Use mathematics (including derivative and integral calculations, probability and statistics), basic sciences, computer and programming, and electronics engineering knowledge to design and analyze complex electronic circuits, instruments, software and electronics systems with hardware/software. 5

**2.** Analyze and design communication networks and systems, signal processing algorithms or software using advanced knowledge on differential equations, linear algebra, complex variables and discrete mathematics. 3

### Update Date:

### ASSESSMENT METHODS and CRITERIA

Percentage (%) | |

Final | 35 |

Midterm | 50 |

Participation | 5 |

Homework | 10 |

### RECOMENDED or REQUIRED READINGS

Textbook |
-- Thermodynamics, Statistical Thermodynamics & Kinetics, 3/E |

Readings |
-- Thermodynamics of Materials, Vol. I by D.V. Ragone (ISBN 0-471-30885-4) |