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Code CONF 534
Term 201702
Title Media in Conflict Resolution
Faculty Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
Subject Conf. Analysis Res.(CONF)
SU Credit 3
ECTS Credit 10.00
Instructor(s) Ayse Betul Celik -bcelik@sabanciuniv.edu,
Language of Instruction English
Level of Course Doctoral
Master
Type of Course Click here to view.
Prerequisites
(only for SU students)
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Content

Events, characters, images and stories we see everyday in the media shape our perceptions and values. Moreover, the way the media presents such issues as cultural diversity/clash, conflicts and wars have a powerful and long-lasting effects in societies and the way the conflict and peace are structured. This course will critically examine the representations of conflict in the media to determine whether such representations are an accurate or distorted reflection of reality; study the effects (if any) of such representations on the public to provide the students with a critical understanding of the role of media in shaping society and social norms. The scope of this course includes how media creates stereotypes leading cultural intensity, how it reflects times of conflicts and wars (with an emphasis on embedded journalism), how media's presentation of reality affects peace process and post-conflict phase.

Objective

Events, characters, images and stories we see everyday in the media shape our perceptions and values. Moreover, the way the media presents such issues as cultural diversity/clash, conflicts and wars has powerful and long-lasting effects in societies and the way the conflict and peace are structured. This course will critically examine the representations of conflict in the media to determine whether such representations are an accurate or distorted reflection of reality; study the effects (if any) of such representations on the public to provide the students with a critical understanding of the role of media in shaping society and social norms. The scope of this course includes how media creates stereotypes leading cultural intensity, how it reflects times of conflicts and wars (with an emphasis on embedded journalism), how media's presentation of reality affects peace process and post-conflict phase. We will also host several prominent scholars and practitioner in the field throughout the semester.

Learning Outcome

Upon completing this course, students should be able to:
1) develop a knowledge of critical media analysis and literacy.
2) discuss the direct and indirect role of media in promoting peace and/or conflict
3) identify the contents and methods of using media tools used for peacebuilding

Programme Outcomes
 
1 Develop and deepen the current and advanced knowledge in the field with original thought and/or research and come up with innovative definitions based on Master's degree qualifications
2 Conceive the interdisciplinary interaction which the field is related with ; come up with original solutions by using knowledge requiring proficiency on analysis, synthesis and assessment of new and complex ideas.
3 Evaluate and use new information within the field in a systematic approach.
4 Develop an innovative knowledge, method, design and/or practice or adapt an already known knowledge, method, design and/or practice to another field; research, conceive, design, adapt and implement an original subject.
5 Critical analysis, synthesis and evaluation of new and complex ideas.
6 Gain advanced level skills in the use of research methods in the field of study.
7 Contribute the progression in the field by producing an innovative idea, skill, design and/or practice or by adapting an already known idea, skill, design, and/or practice to a different field independently.
8 Broaden the borders of the knowledge in the field by producing or interpreting an original work or publishing at least one scientific paper in the field in national and/or international refereed journals.
9 Demonstrate leadership in contexts requiring innovative and interdisciplinary problem solving.
10 Develop new ideas and methods in the field by using high level mental processes such as creative and critical thinking, problem solving and decision making.
11 Investigate and improve social connections and their conducting norms and manage the actions to change them when necessary.
12 Defend original views when exchanging ideas in the field with professionals and communicate effectively by showing competence in the field.
13 Ability to communicate and discuss orally, in written and visually with peers by using a foreign language at least at a level of European Language Portfolio C1 General Level.
14 Contribute to the transition of the community to an information society and its sustainability process by introducing scientific, technological, social or cultural improvements.
15 Demonstrate functional interaction by using strategic decision making processes in solving problems encountered in the field.
16 Contribute to the solution finding process regarding social, scientific, cultural and ethical problems in the field and support the development of these values.
1 Develop the ability to use critical, analytical, and reflective thinking and reasoning
2 Reflect on social and ethical responsibilities in his/her professional life.
3 Gain experience and confidence in the dissemination of project/research outputs
4 Work responsibly and creatively as an individual or as a member or leader of a team and in multidisciplinary environments.
5 Communicate effectively by oral, written, graphical and technological means and have competency in English.
6 Independently reach and acquire information, and develop appreciation of the need for continuously learning and updating.
1 Design and model engineering systems and processes and solve engineering problems with an innovative approach.
2 Establish experimental setups, conduct experiments and/or simulations.
3 Analytically acquire and interpret data.
1 Develop a thorough knowledge of theories, concepts, and research methods in the field and apply them in research design and data analysis.
2 Assess the impact of the economic, social, and political environment from a global, national and regional level.
3 Know how to access written and visual, primary and secondary sources of information, interpret concepts and data from a variety of sources in developing disciplinary and interdisciplinary analyses.
1 Analyze current and persistent conflict situations with an emphasis on perceptual and cultural aspects of social conflicts.
2 Conduct research in sources of conflicts and possible conflict resolution methods such as negotiation, third-party intervention, cooperative decision making, peace building, track-two and citizens? diplomacy applied to various social contexts.
3 Design and implement conflict resolution process to policy issues related to disputes in or among identity groups, governments, organizations, civil society or corporations.
4 Develop and sustain arguments in a variety of forms, formulating appropriate questions and utilizing evidence.
1 Establish a strong theoretical background in several of a broad range of subjects related to the discipline, such as manufacturing processes, service systems design and operation, production planning and control, modeling and optimization, stochastics, statistics.
2 Develop novel modeling and / or analytical solution strategies for problems in integrated production and service systems involving human capital, materials, information, equipment, and energy, also using an interdisciplinary approach whenever appropriate.
3 Implement solution strategies on a computer platform for decision-support purposes by employing effective computational and experimental tools.
4 Acquire skills to independently explore and tackle problems related to the discipline that were not encountered previously. Develop appropriate modeling, solution, implementation strategies, and assess the quality of the outcome.
1 Apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering in computer science and engineering related problems.
2 Display knowledge of contemporary issues in computer science and engineering and apply to a particular problem.
3 Demonstrate the use of results from interpreted data to improve the quality of research or a product in computer science and engineering.
Recommended or Required Reading
Readings

Week 1: Introduction (Sept 25, 2008)
Week 2: Operational Introduction to Media and Conflict (Oct 9, 2008)
* Ryszard Kapuscinski "Media as mirror to the World"
* Daniel Dayan and Elihu Katz (2002). "Defining Media Events," in McQuail's reader in mass communication theory, Denis McQuail (ed.) London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif : SAGE.
* Ronal E. Rice (2002). "Artifacts and Paradoxes in New Media," in McQuail's reader in mass communication theory, Denis McQuail (ed.) London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif : SAGE.
* Bruce A. Williams (2003). "The New Media Environment, Internet Chatrooms, and Public Discourse After 9/11," Daya Kishan Thussu and Des Freedman (eds.). War and the Media, London: Sage.

Week 3: Elements of Reporting and Journalism. What to cover? Who determines what is important?" (Oct 16, 2008)
* Maxwell E. McCombs and Donald l. Shaw (2001). "The Agenda-setting function of Mass Media" in Approaches to Media: A Reader. Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newbold, C. (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Pres
* Galtung, J. and M.H. Ruge (1965) "The Structure of Foreign News" Journal of Peace Research Vol.2 No.1, 64-91.
* Benson, Rodney (2006). "News Media as a "Journalistic Field": What Bourdieu Adds to New Institutionalism, and Vice Versa" Political Communication. 23:187-202.


Week 4: Theories of Mass Communication and Social Learning. Influence of Media on Society (Oct 23, 2008)
* Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory of mass communications. In J. Bryant, & D. Zillman (Eds.). Media effects: Advances in theory and research (2nd ed., 121-153). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
* James Curran, Michael Gurevitch ND Janet Woollacott (2001). "The study of the media: theoretical approaches," in Approaches to Media: A Reader. Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newbold, C. (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Pres.
* Elihu Katz and Paul F. Lazarsfeld (2001). "Between media and mass/the parrt played by people/the two-step flow of communication," in Approaches to Media: A Reader. Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newbold, C. (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Pres.

Week 5: Framing, Perceptions, Iconography and Terminology (Oct 30, 2008)
* Nelson, T. E. & Z. M. Oxley. 1999. Issue Framing Effects on Belief Importance and Opinion. The Journal of Politics, 61(4), 1040-1067.
* Entman, Robert M. (1993) "Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm,"Journal of Communication Vol. 43 No:4
* Sabine Schiffer (2005). "Islam in German Media" available at www.medienverantwortung.de
* Dolf Zilmann et al (2004). "Effects of Lead Framing on Selective Exposure to Internet News Reports," Communication Research, 31 (1), 58-81.

Week 6: Freedom of Speech and Media Manipulation (Nov 6, 2008)
* Judith Lichtenberg (2002). "Foundations and Limits of Freedom of Press," in McQuail's reader in mass communication theory, Denis McQuail (ed.) London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif : SAGE.
* John C. Nerone (2002). "Social Responsibility Theory," in McQuail's reader in mass communication theory, Denis McQuail (ed.) London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif : SAGE.
* Fred Halliday (1999). "Manipulation and Limits: Media Coverage of the Gulf War, 1990-1991," Tima Allen and Jean Seaton (eds.). The Media of Conflict. London and New York: Zed Books.
* Gadi Wolfsfeld. "Controlling the media in insurrections and wars: the intifada and the Gulf War," Media and Political Conflict: News From the Middle East, 124-139.

Week 7: Media and Objectivity. Who makes the News? Cultural Dimensions of Reporting (Nov 13, 2008)
* Durham Gigi, M. (1998). On the relevance of standpoint epistemology to the practice of journalism: The case for "strong objectivity." Communication Theory, 8(2), 117-140.
* Tuchman, Gaye. (1972). Objectivity as strategic ritual: An examination of newsmen's notions of objectivity. American Journal of Sociology, 77(4), 660-667.
* W Joseph Campbell and Robert L Stevenson (2001) "Women as Global NewsMaker and Correspondents: Where Pres Freedom Matters," Karen Ross, Deniz Derman and Nevena Dakovic (eds.). Mediated Identities. ?stanbul Bilgi University, 303-312.
* Howard Tumber and Marina Prentoulis (2003). "Journalists Under Fire: Subcultures, Objectivity and Emotional Litearacy," Daya Kishan Thussu and Des Freedman (eds.). War and the Media, London: Sage.

Week 8: Nationalism and Hate Media (Nov 20, 2008)
* Srbobran Brankovic (2000). "Media Interpretation of War as an Instrument of national Homogenisation" in Media and War. Nena Skopljanac Brunner et al (eds.). Belgrade: Agency Argument.
* Pureterrah Witcher (2006). "Hate Media", UN Chronicle No.3, 36-37.
* Nena Skopljanac Brunner(2000). "Media strategies of constructing the image of the "other" as "enemy" in Media and War. Nena Skopljanac Brunner et al (eds.). Belgrade: Agency Argument.
* Rune Ottosen (1995). "Enemy Images and the Journalistic Process," Journal of Peace Research, 32 (1), 97-112.

Week 9: Reporting Human Rights and Humanitarian Crises- Embedded Journalism (Nov 27, 2008)
* Piers Robinson (2000). "The Policy-Media Interaction Model: Measuring Media Power During Humanitarian Crisis," Journal of Peace Research, 37(5), 613-633.
* Greg McLaughlin (2002). "The War Correspondent" in War Correspondent. London: Pluto Pres.
* Howard Tumber "Reporting Under Fire"
* Daya Kishan Thussu (2003). "Live TV and Bloodless Deaths: War, Infotainment and 24/7 News," Daya Kishan Thussu and Des Freedman (eds.). War and the Media, London: Sage.

Week 10: Peace Journalism (Dec 4, 2008)
* Johan Galtung (2002). "Peace Journalism," in Journalism and the New World Order. Vol.2, Wilhelm Kempf and Heikki Luostarinen, Goteborg: Nordicom.
* Burkhard Blasi (2004). "Peace Journalism and the News Production Process," Conflict and Communication Online, 3 (1/2).
* Wilhelm Kempf (2003). "Constructive Conflict Coverage- A social-psychological research and development program," Conflict and Communication Online, 2(2).
* "Turkey Urgently Needs Peace Journalism" Bianet, February 13, 2008.

Week 11: Media as a tool for dialogue and reconciliation (Dec 18, 2008)
* Cultural Conflict in the Middle East: The Media as Peacemakers, Dov Shi na r in Media and Conflict
* Sonia Gutierrez - Villalobos (2002). "The Media and Reconciliation in Central America, in Media and Conflict" in Media and Conflict: Framing Issues, Making Policy, Shaping Options Eytan Gilboa (ed) (2002). Ardsley,NY: Transnational Publishers.
* People Building Peace. "Radio Ijambo Bridges the Ethnic Divide in Burundi"

Week 12, 13 Presentations (Dec 25, 2008 and Jan 8, 2009)

Week 14: Conclusion (Jan 8, 2009)