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Code HIST 488
Term 201102
Title Nationalist Projects in Southeast European History
Faculty Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
Subject History(HIST)
SU Credit 3
ECTS Credit 6.00 / 6.00 ECTS (for students admitted in the 2013-14 Academic Year or following years)
Instructor(s) Fikret Adan?r,
Detailed Syllabus
Language of Instruction English
Level of Course Undergraduate
Type of Course Click here to view.
(only for SU students)
Mode of Delivery Interactive lecture,Seminar
Planned Learning Activities Interactive,Discussion based learning,Case Study

The protracted decline and breakup of the Ottoman empire went hand in hand with the rise of a number of mutually antagonistic nationalisms which kept competing not only against the Porte but also against one another for political, ideological, and economic space. After initial, embryonic nation-statehood, such competition acquired irredentistic extensions. HIST 488 proposes to look at various such projects that culminated in great human tragedies in the early 20th century, the legacy of which endures to this day. Thus a brief introduction on theories of nation and nationalism will be followed by close examinations of : (1) the idea of a ''Greater Serbia'';(2) the rise of the ''Illyrianism'' (or Illyrismus) concept and the related notion of ''Yugoslavia'' in Croatia; (3) the role of state policy in the Greek megali idea; (4) Ottomanism (Osmanl?l?k) : an initial reaction against nationalist movements; (5) religion, ethnos, and nation in Bulgaria; (6) how ''constructed'' was the Macedonian nation; (7) the development of Albanian ''nationhood'' and the idea of a ''greater Albania''; (8) the rise and outlines of Turkish nationalism. The course will conclude with a review of nationalism and ''minorities'' questions today.


The aim is to provide an overview of national liberation movements and irredentist projects in Southeast European history during the long 19th century.

Learning Outcome

Upon completion of this course, students should be able

- to describe, on the basis of selected literature and visual material, the main stages of the nation-state formation in Southeastern Europe from a comparative perspective
- to comprehend themes to be selected by the students for seminar work and term papers;
- to identify the major social forces, ideological programs, institutions and leaders during the formation period of the Balkan nation-states and relate them to an overall conception of the subject matter;
- to synthesize large themes over a relatively long span of history;
- to systematize historical argumentation, based on professional standards of evidence use;
- to develop the ability to approach specific issues from a comparative perspective and form a convincing opinion in face of divergent views of different historians on the topic;
- to develop independent study capability, including participation in seminar discussions;
- to select written and visual material to produce, by a deadline, a coherent and convincing argument.

Programme Outcomes
Common Outcomes For All Programs
1 Understand the world, their country, their society, as well as themselves and have awareness of ethical problems, social rights, values and responsibility to the self and to others. 5
2 Understand different disciplines from natural and social sciences to mathematics and art, and develop interdisciplinary approaches in thinking and practice. 2
3 Think critically, follow innovations and developments in science and technology, demonstrate personal and organizational entrepreneurship and engage in life-long learning in various subjects. 2
4 Communicate effectively by oral, written, graphical and technological means and have competency in English. 5
5 Take individual and team responsibility, function effectively and respectively as an individual and a member or a leader of a team. 4
Common Outcomes ForFaculty of Arts & Social Sci.
1 Develop a thorough knowledge of theories, concepts, and research methods in the field and apply them in research design and data analysis. 5
2 Assess the impact of the economic, social, and political environment from a global, national and regional level. 5
3 Know how to access written and visual, primary and secondary sources of information, interpret concepts and data from a variety of sources in developing disciplinary and interdisciplinary analyses. 5
Assessment Methods and Criteria
  Percentage (%)
Final 50
Participation 30
Presentation 20
Recommended or Required Reading

Mark Mazower, The Balkans (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2000)
Eric Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed., 1992)
Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1991)

Optional Readings

Gale Stokes, "Church and Class in Early Balkan Nationalism", East European Quarterly 13 (1979), 259-270.
Mark Biondich, The Balkans: Revolution, War, and Political Violence since 1878 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), Ch. I: "Nations, Nationalism, and Violence in the Balkans", 1-44.
Agusta Dimou, "'... and then the Prince kissed Sleeping Beauty.' Some Thoughts on Popular Narratives of the Wars of Liberation in the Balkans", Jahrbucher fur Geschichte und Kultur Sudosteuropas 6 (2004), 187-196.
Ernst Renan, "What is a Nation?", in Geoff Eley and Ronald Grigor Suny (eds.), Becoming National: A Reader (New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 42-55.
Thomas Hylland Eriksen, Ethnicity and Nationalism. Anthropological Perspectives (London-Sterling, VA: Pluto Press 1993), 1-17.
Anthony D. Smith, "Th Origins of Nations", in Geoff Eley and Ronald Grigor Suny (eds.), Becoming national: a reader (New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 106-130.
John Breuilly, "Approaches to nationalism", in Gopal Balakrishnan (ed.), Mapping the Nation (London: Verso, 1996), 146-174.
"The Warwick Debates on Nationalism" (
Rogers Brubaker, "Myths and Misconceptions in the Study of Nationalism", in John A. Hall (ed), The State of the Nation. Ernest Gellner and the Theory of Nationalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 272-307.
Dusan T. Batakovic, "Ilija Garasanin's 'Nacertanije': A Reassessment" (
Stevan K. Pavlowitch, Serbia: The History Behind the Name (London: Hurst, 2002), 27-64.
Roger Viers Paxton, "Nationalism and Revolution: a Re-Examination of the Origins of the First Serbian Insurrection 1804-1807", East European Quarterly 6 (1972), 337-362.
David MacKenzie, "Serbian Nationalist and Military Organizations and the Piedmont idea, 1844-1914", East European Quarterly 16 (1982), 323-344.
Ivo Banac, The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988), 21-140.
Ivo Goldstein, Croatia. A History (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1999), 54-107.
John V.A. Fine, When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2006), 1-26, 557-562.
Richard Clogg, "The Greek millet in the Ottoman Empire", in Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis (eds.), Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire. The Functioning of a Plural Society (New York-London: Holmes & Meier, 1982), Vol. 1, 185-207.
Steven W. Sowards, Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History, Lecture 6: "The Greek Revolution and the Greek State" (
Richard Clogg, "The Byzantine Legacy in the Modern Greek World: the Megali Idea", in Lowell Clucas (ed.), The Byzantine Legacy in Eastern Europe (Boulder: East European Monographs; New York: Distributed by Columbia University Press, 1988), 253-281.
Keith Hitchins, The Romanians, 1774-1866 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), 5-57.
Charles and Barbara Jelavich, The Establishment of the Balkan National States, 1804-1920 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986). 84-98, 114-127.
Dennis Deletant, "Ethnos and Mythos in the History of Transylvania: The Case of the Chronicler Anonymus", in Laszlo Peter (ed.), Historians and the History of Transylvania (Boulder: East European Monographs; Distributed by Columbia University Press, New York, 1992), 67-85.
Roderic H. Davison, "Nationalism as an Ottoman Problem and the Ottoman Response", in William W. Haddad and William Ochsenwald (eds.), Nationalism in a Non National State. The Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (Columbia: Ohio State University Press, 1977), 25 56.
Avigdor Levy, "Ottoman Attitudes to the rise of Balkan Nationalism", in Bela K. Kiraly and Gunther E. Rothenberg (eds.), War and Society in East Central Europa: Special Topics and Generalizations on the 18th and 19th Centuries (New York: Brooklyn College Press, 1979), 325-345.
Mehmet Hac?saliho?lu, "Borders, Maps, and Censuses: The Politicization of Geography and Statistics in the Multi-Ethnic Ottoman Empire", in Jorn Leonhard and Ulrike von Hirschhausen (eds.), Comparing Empires: Encounters and Transfers in the Long Nineteenth Century (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2011), 171-210.
Charles and Barbara Jelavich, The Establishment of the Balkan National States, 1804-1920 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986), 128-169.
James F. Clarke, "Serbia and the Bulgarian Revival (1762-1872)", American Slavic and East European Review, Vol. 4, No. 3/4 (Dec., 1945), 141-162
Mari Agop Firkatian, The Forest Traveler: Georgi Stoikov Rakovski and Bulgarian Nationalism (New York: Peter Lang, 1996), 103-148.
Zinaida Markova, "Bulgarian Exarchate 1870-1879", (
Barbara Jelavich, History of the Balkans, Vol. 2: Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 79-105.
Victor Roudometof, Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian Question (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002), 83-117.
Karakasidou, Anastasia N.: Fields of Wheat, Hills of Blood : Passages to Nationhood in Greek Macedonia, 1870-1990 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), 77-137.
Charles and Barbara Jelavich, The Establishment of the Balkan National States, 1804-1920 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986), 221-234.
Antonina Zhelyazkova, "Albanian Identities", in Antonina Zhelyazkova, Albania and Albanian Identities (Sofia: International Center for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations, 2000), 9-63.
Piro Misha, "Invention of a Nationalism. Myth and Amnesia", in Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers and Bernd J. Fischer (eds.), Albanian identities: Myth and History (London: Hurst, 2002), 33-48.
Isa Blumi, "The Role of Education in the Formation of Albanian Identity and its Myths, in Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers and Bernd J. Fischer (eds.), Albanian identities: Myth and History (London: Hurst, 2002), 49-59.
Isa Blumi, "Contesting the Edges of the Ottoman Empire: Rethinking Ethnic and Sectarian Boundaries in the Malesore, 1878-1912", International Journal of Middle East Studies 35 (2003), 237-256.
David Kushner, The Rise of Turkish Nationalism 1876-1908 (London: Frank Cass, 1977).
Sukru M. Hanio?lu, The Young Turks in Opposition (New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 7-32.
Selim Deringil, "From Ottoman to Turk: Self-Image and Social Engineering in Turkey", in Dru C. Gladney (ed.), Making Majorities: Constituting the Nation in Japan, Korea, China, Malaysia, Fiji, Turkey, and the United States (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), 217-226.
U?ur Umit Ungor, "Seeing Like a Nation-state: Young Turk Social Engineering in Eastern Turkey, 1913-1950", Journal of Genocide Research 10 (2008), No. 1, 15-39.
Eric J. Hobsbawm, "Ethnicity and Nationalism in Europe Today", in Gopal Balakrishnan (ed.), Mapping the Nation (London: Verso, 1996), 255-266.
Michael Mann, "Nation-states in Europe and Other Continents: Diversifying, Developing, Not Dying", in Gopal Balakrishnan (ed.), Mapping the Nation (London: Verso, 1996), 295-316.
Christiane Harzig, "From State Constructions to Individual Opportunities: The Historical Development of Citizenship in Europe", in Dirk Hoerder et al. (eds.), The Historical Practice of Diversity: Transcultural Interactions from the Early Modern Mediterranean to the Postcolonial World (Oxford New York: Berghahn Books, 2003), 203-220.